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Understanding Ozone

Preface: The following information is provided to help you better understand the difference between natural, beneficial levels of ozone found in fresh air, which can also be duplicated indoors with residential air purifiers; and the potentially unsafe levels of ozone produced by fuel combustion from millions of automobiles and aircraft, typically found in large cities with heavy air pollution.

What is ozone?
Ozone, also known as "activated oxygen," is an oxidizer produced by nature to keep our air clean and safe to breathe. Nature converts regular oxygen into activated oxygen (ozone) to oxidize (burn up) harmful air pollutants. Through the process of reacting with most air pollutants, ozone converts these harmful substances into more harmless compounds, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. After ozone reacts with pollutants in the air, it instantly reverts back into breathable oxygen. Ozone is created naturally outdoors, primarily from sunshine and lightning from over 40, 000 electrical storms that occur on earth daily. The ozone made from these sources is considered both essential and harmless. These beneficial levels of ozone are found virtually everywhere on earth including in forests, meadows, over the ocean, and up in the mountain tops; far away from the high pollution levels found in cites. This is how our air has been purified outdoors for thousands of years before industrialization. This tiny amount of ground level ozone is absolutely essential to life. Without natural amounts of ozone in the outdoor air we breathe, every living thing on earth would likely die from massive chemical and biological pollution.

Ozone can also be produced through fuel combustion. When man produces too much ozone, such as by millions of automobiles and aircraft in large cities, the ozone itself can become irritating to our respiratory system. These large cities will then issue "ozone alerts." These higher levels of ozone are typically proportional to the amount of pollution in the air. Understanding that the many air pollutants produced from combustion cannot easily be measured, the ozone, which can easily be measured, is used as a pollution level "indicator." It should be acknowledged that the respiratory problems experienced in these large cities are directly related to the massive amounts of particles and other combustion pollutants (the visible haze) in that air. Further, the ozone in that polluted air is also simultaneously acting as a purifier to help clean the pollutants from that air.

Regarding ozone safety, it is the amount of ozone in the air that is important. As an example, fire is also an oxidizer, which can be both good and bad. A small amount of fire is great to heat a home or cook a meal. At the two extremes: no fire at all could leave one cold and hungry, or too much fire could burn a home down. In essence, certain levels of fire are beneficial and others are not. Nonetheless, our need for fire must be acknowledged and proper levels must be maintained to receive the benefits from it. This analogy of fire parallels the distinction between safe levels of ozone being maintained indoors by small air purifiers and the other two extremes: the total absence of ozone indoors and vehicular levels in large cities. We must remember that nature depicts our need for such things as ozone, ions, oxygen, food, water, sleep and exercise. Too much or too little of any of these and we will likely become ill. Yet, in just the right amounts, they promote good health.

Can we trust nature's air purification ozone levels?
We all know that we need oxygen in our air to stay alive. However, too much or not enough oxygen can be a detriment to our health. The exact amount of oxygen that we need for optimum health is determined for us by nature. Likewise, the amount of activated oxygen (ozone) essential for a healthy existence on earth is also accurately determined for us by nature. Despite nature's natural pollution from oil fires, forest fires, volcanic gasses, and all of the added pollution from nearly six billion people on the planet, nature still does a miraculous job of purifying earths very limited air supply… without the use of chemical air fresheners or air filters. This is one of the reasons we like to go out for fresh air and is clear proof that we can trust in natural ozone levels.

Conversely, most indoor environments have air that is missing healthy levels of ozone. Surprisingly, these indoor environments can easily have air pollution levels as much as 500% higher than those found outdoors in large cities. This indoor air pollution can contain three different types of contaminants that include: 1) floating dust particles from a variety of unpleasant sources, 2) chemical gasses being continually emitted from carpet, furniture, plastics, clothing and building materials, some of which off-gas for as long as 20 years, and 3) biological contaminants such as mold, mildew, dust mites, mite excrement, bacteria and viruses. These pollutants can cause a long list of respiratory ailments and other ill health effects.

In today's energy efficient structures, there is virtually no ozone available in our indoor air because there is no source for it. Do we have direct sunshine that does not pass through glass, or electrical lightning bolts inside of our houses or the buildings we work in? Of course not. Do we even open our windows? Not as often as we should; if we did, the beneficial effects of any entering ozone will only last about five minutes after closing the windows before converting back into oxygen. The air then starts to become rancid again. If we could leave all of our windows and doors wide open, 24 hours a day, all year long, we would have much less of an ozone deficiency problem in our homes. It is obviously impractical to leave our windows open for security reasons, as well as indoor temperature and humidity control. This is why millions of people now use air purifiers to replace the natural, beneficial levels of ozone in their indoor air.

Why is there so much confusion about ozone?
There is considerable confusion regarding the use of indoor air purification systems that produce ozone as part of the air purification process. This confusion always stems from a lack of understanding about the "levels" of ozone in air. Adding to this confusion, all levels of ozone are measured in tiny amounts called "parts per million" (PPM), which means that both safe and unsafe levels are called "low" levels. There is, however, a very significant difference between .03 PPM, typically found in fresh outdoor air and 1.0 PPM that can be found in smog. This amount in fresh air for instance is 33 times lower than the smog level. In fresh air, nature produces a level that we all enjoy breathing. On the other hand, the much higher amount found in city smog could be irritating to eyes and lungs.

People who replace the safe levels of ozone in their indoor air enjoy, and often rave about, the benefits they receive. Yet, other people are afraid of using ozone indoors because they associate these beneficial levels of ozone with the much higher levels of ozone produced by automobiles and aircraft. The irony is that these same fearful people breathe beneficial levels of ozone every time they step outdoors for "fresh" air. In truth, for any scientist, doctor, or government agency to compare the safe level of ozone replaced indoors by small air purifiers, to the amounts of ozone produced by multi-millions of vehicles, offers an "apples to oranges" comparison that lacks both scientific evidence and common sense.

Further, it should be no surprise that government information regarding ozone and air purifiers is very confusing. Documents referenced by the government refer primarily to levels of ozone from mass vehicular combustion. They, incorrectly, do not address the distinct difference between these higher levels and those produced by small residential air purifiers. One has to read through numerous pages of information about possible health affects of vehicular ozone to find the official statement that those levels of ozone below the government standard of .05 PPM are known to be harmless. This misinformation and lack of clarification only serves to confuse people who do not thoroughly research Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).

Who profits from this confusion?
It would appear that there are five groups that significantly profit when people remain confused on the ozone issue. First, there are those who manufacture and sell chemical deodorizers, which literally pollute indoor air while attempting to cover up odors caused from lack of ozone. Sales are evidenced by the huge displays of these products found in stores everywhere. Second, there are the HEPA air filter companies that profit when people do not understand the difference between basic filtration and ozone-enhanced air purification technologies. Third, there are doctors, many of whom now have waiting lists of people who are suffering with breathing disorders. Certainly most doctors have the best interests of their patients in mind; however, medical doctors have no IAQ training and do not fully understand the seriousness of the indoor air pollution problem. Unfortunately, the medical alternatives are surgery or prescription drugs for those who suffer IAQ-related illnesses. (Note: Do not discontinue any medications without first consulting your doctor.) Fourth, there are the manufacturers and dealers of drugs, which treat only the symptoms associated with breathing indoor air. Ads and commercials for these drugs are now shown repeatedly on national television and in magazines. Despite the long list of side effects that can, in some cases, be worse than the breathing disorder, these companies are selling multi-billions of dollars worth of drugs to people suffering from indoor air. Fifth, our government approves these drugs, and then collects taxes on them from people who often become as dependent on these breathing medications as street addicts do to illicit drugs. They know if you cannot breathe, you'll pay the money. With so much money being made treating only symptoms, one should consider why so much confusion and misinformation is being disseminated regarding the benefits of ozone replacement. The absurdity is that those same, supposedly learned people, who perpetuate misstatements about ozone, breathe air that contains ozone and has been purified by ozone every time they step out for fresh air.

Are all ozone producing air purifiers safe?
During a government-cited test, a machine rated for a large area of 3,000 sq. ft. was placed into a small room of only 350 sq. ft. and then adjusted to the maximum setting. Not surprisingly, it was discovered they had to drastically violate the instructions, by nearly 10 times, in order to achieve levels that are not recommended for occupied spaces. These higher levels can create a temporary smell similar to chlorine from an indoor pool and are used only to sanitize a room or eliminate strong odor problems in temporarily unoccupied rooms. While sanitizing and odor removal are beneficial features, this was not the correct setting for normal indoor air cleaning in occupied areas. And, of course, we do not operate our home appliances on maximum settings unless we have a beneficial reason to do so, and then only according to instructions. Additionally, any air purifier that produces ozone should have full adjustability to control the ozone output.

Virtually every governmental agency and health organization agrees that the average levels of ozone produced naturally throughout the earth are completely harmless to our health. While there are now a number of companies manufacturing air purifiers that reproduce ozone indoors, ensuring scientific validation for safe levels of ozone production is recommended before purchase. At the time of this writing, there is only one company, which as a result of a federal court hearing, has had their air purifying efficiency claims validated in governmentally-approved laboratories. This company proved that their air purification systems could effectively eliminate polluting odors, tobacco smoke, and even secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke is one of the most difficult indoor air pollutants to eliminate because it consists of thousands of chemical gasses and microscopic particles that can trigger allergy and asthma attacks. This same company has also proven that their air purifiers can kill harmful mold, mildew, and bacteria under normal use, and rapidly when used in the sanitizing mode in unoccupied rooms. Additionally, in June 2001, the FDA approved ozone as an antimicrobial agent in the water we drink and on the very food we eat, because it works and is safer than other means of disinfection.

Are there known benefits from ozone replacement?
At the time of this writing, the leading company in ozone replacement technologies has sold multi-millions of ozone replacement air purification systems. Most of these systems are being used 24 hours a day, some for over 17 years. They are being used in every conceivable indoor environment including homes, offices, day care centers, bars, restaurants, nursing homes, factories, hospitals, laboratories, retail stores, etc. With billions upon billions of hours of use, there has not been so much as one substantiated injury from replacing beneficial levels of ozone to indoor air. In fact, the opposite seems to be true.

People who have been replacing the missing ozone to their indoor air have been giving testimony to the many benefits. Users have claimed that difficult odors from pets, smokers, mold and mildew are virtually eliminated; that their homes smell like fresh air; that house plants thrive and cut flowers last longer; even that their pets feel better and have been seen sleeping in front of air purifiers, just as instinctively as they would an open window. Farmers who are now replacing ozone to the air in barns have reported significantly reduced barn odors, as well as a reduced rate of animal death by disease. When one considers the high levels of airborne contaminants being found in virtually all indoor environments, perhaps it should not seem unusual that there would be so many personal testimonies from people replacing the ozone in their buildings.

As astounding as these testimonies are, it is the stories concerning humans that are most remarkable. There have been claims of chronic headaches disappearing, allergy and asthma symptoms ceasing or diminishing, snoring cessation, increased sense of smell, children and adults sleeping better, etc. It should be noted that despite the testimonies from those who purify their indoor air, it is illegal for the manufacturers and dealers of air purification systems to make any health claims such as these. While testimonials may compel us to consider the possible benefits of natural air purification indoors, air purifiers only treat the air, not people. They are not guaranteed to cure health problems and are not sold as medical devices or as a medical "cure."

Does ozone replacement solve all IAQ problems?

Absolutely not. There is no single measure that can solve all IAQ problems. As important as ozone is to our indoor air quality, it is only one of the factors involved in improving our indoor air. For the best possible indoor air quality, there are five other strategies that should be followed in addition to ozone replacement: elimination of indoor contaminants through source reduction; ventilation to bring in oxygenated air from outdoors through the installation of make-up air vents and by opening windows as often as possible; filtration (trapping) of physical particles through the use of quality air filters in furnaces, as well as, HEPA filtration in vacuum cleaners and room air cleaners; ionization of airborne particles that are too small to be trapped in filters but equally, if not more, dangerous to our lungs; and dehumidification to control biological contaminants.

With millions suffering from indoor air related illnesses, people should take every precaution they can, including natural ozone replacement.

How bad is the indoor air in houses and buildings?
Since the 1970's, we have been making our homes very airtight and energy efficient. Consequently, this causes homes to collect, compound and even create pollutants in the indoor air we breathe. Correlated with the energy saving measures, we have had epidemic increases in the number of people who are now suffering with allergies, asthma and other health problems. Hundreds of thousands of people are being hospitalized and millions now need doctor visits, drugs, shots and inhalers. Indoor air pollution is a widespread problem in both new and old homes, whether located in cities or in rural areas. It is non-discriminating, affecting everyone from infants to senior citizens. The U.S. government has considered the indoor air pollution problem to be a #1 environmental health concern.

On average, each human will breathe approximately 2,500 gallons of air every day without proper consideration of its purity. We spend approximately 90% of our time indoors breathing continuous amounts of particle pollutants, off-gassing chemicals and airborne biological pollutants. All three of the categories of indoor air pollution can affect everyone to varying degrees with a wide range of symptoms. These symptoms can include stuffy nose, nasal drip, ear infections, itchy throat, itchy eyes, tearing eyes, sneezing, chronic coughs, wheezing, headaches, sleep difficulty, snoring, dizziness, tiredness, fatigue, behavioral problems, learning disabilities, sinusitis, sinus infections, mild and severe asthma, as well as allergies to dust, dander, pollen, mites, mold and chemicals. All of these symptoms can be caused by, or aggravated by indoor air contaminants. Odors from new construction materials, remodeling, paints, urethanes, new carpet, new vinyl, house pets, smoke, mold and mildew are also indicative of indoor air contamination. If we lived outdoors and breathed fresh air all of the time, it would be unlikely that we would be experiencing these epidemic levels of symptoms. If you or those you care about suffer from any of the symptoms associated with indoor air, it is recommended to take every measure possible to clean your indoor air, without delay. The longer the exposure, the greater the health risks.

Understanding Electrical Ions

What are electrical ions?

Ions are an invisible form of electrical energy in the air. Through the sun, vegetation, and lightning, ions are made continuously and are in abundant supply outdoors. As an example, if you were to remove the powder from a medication capsule, the amount of air inside would be approximately one cubic centimeter. In this tiny amount of air, nature will make approximately 4,000 negatively charged ions and 3,000 positive. Research has shown ions to have health benefits for our bio-electric human bodies, but perhaps most important, ions perform an absolutely essential function in cleaning our air of particles.

How do ions work?

It would probably help to think of electrical ions as little magnets that float through the air and attract invisible dust particles also found in the air. Just as a magnet can pick up many metal paper clips in one lump, ions can bond many dust particles together. When this process occurs, the newly formed, larger particles become too heavy to stay floating in the air, so they fall to the ground and become dirt. Put another way, if nature did not make ions for us, our air outdoors would be so thick with particles that every living thing on earth would have been choked to death a long time ago. It is largely because of ions that our outdoor air becomes non-irritating, crisper and easier to inhale. In fact, if we all lived outdoors, the epidemic levels of indoor air illnesses would likely be nonexistent. However, we spend approximately 90% of our time indoors where we do not have the benefits of direct sunshine, planetary vegetation, or bolts of lightning, and thus virtually no ions to clean particles from our indoor air.

Why should I replace ions in my indoor air?

Most of the particles in outdoor air are rendered harmless due to the synergism of ions and their sister air cleaning ingredient ozone. Indoors the situation is much different. We seal these natural air purifying ingredients out of our homes with deadly precision. Now add to this, the creation of massive amounts of indoor particles. Just since you started reading this your body has created approximately 4,800,000 particles. These are particles of dead skin being sloughed off of your body. Each person in your home or workplace will create about 40,000 particles each and every second. We shed billions of these particles everyday and there is no way around it. In fact, human dander generates 80% of the dust you see in your home. The other 20% can consist of pollen, mold spores, pet dander, insect parts, microscopic urine and fecal particles from pet accidents, dust mites, dust mite excrement, etc. This all sounds bad enough, but it becomes worse when we realize that even more contaminants attach themselves to these particles for a free ride in your air. Contaminants such as radon gas, bacteria, and viruses have no other means of locomotion other than on the floating dust particles inside your home. This is why people get sick so easily indoors. You don't catch a cold from fresh outdoor air; you catch a cold from inhaling dust particles with someone else's viruses attached to them. Essentially, without an ionizer, the wet linings of your respiratory system are the primary method of particle removal from the air. Obviously, this is also causes sickness and disease. With an ionizing air purifier, the smallest of airborne particles become enlarged through ionic aggregation. This allows the particles to be filtered from the breathable air due to their increased size, or settled out of the breathable air by gravitation, due to their increased weight.

How do I replace ions indoors?

There are a variety of air purification and filtering systems available that can replace electrical ions in your indoor air. The most common ionizers, including HEPA filters with built-in ionizers are limited to ionizing only one room. If you want balanced ionic coverage throughout your home (and you should), you would need to purchase a separate ionizer for every room of your home. Further, these types of ionizers have the potential of causing a phenomenon called “Black Wall Syndrome”, whereby the particles are bonded to walls, causing a discoloration which cannot be washed off. There are now improved ionizing technologies which provide a balanced coverage of ions with only one unit required for an average sized home, and they have the added benefit of producing ions in the same positive/negative ratio as outdoor air. If you or those you care about suffer from any indoor air symptoms or illnesses, you should replace the ions to your indoor air. It is highly recommended to take all measures possible to clean your indoor air, and without delay; the longer the exposure to indoor air pollution, the greater the health risks.

Make-Up Air Ventilation

by Building Inspector and Indoor Air Specialist, Dan Schilling

What is make-up air?

Make-up-air is fresh, outdoor air, which is brought into a home or building in a designated fashion, on an as-need basis, through a specially installed vent pipe. Make-up-air prevents dangerous back-drafting of fuel burning appliances and infiltration of outdoor air in ways that could prove detrimental to a house or to our personal comfort. Make-up-air vents also improve indoor air quality and reduce sick building syndrome.

In many new construction projects, the installation of make-up-air vents is a code requirement. Until recently, no homes or buildings were built with make-up-air vents, albeit, we now know the serious consequences that can occur when make-up-air is not provided indoors. The problem revolves around negative air pressure in a home. Negative air pressure occurs whenever air is being sucked out of a building without a way for replacement air (make-up-air) to re-enter. Every time you operate a bathroom or kitchen exhaust fan you are sucking air out of your home. The same is true whenever furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, whole house fans and clothes dryers are being operated. These appliances can suck from 50 to 1450 cubic feet of air per minute out of your house. If your house were a balloon, it would get smaller each time one of these components was operated. Your house cannot contract like a balloon, so the result is negative indoor air pressure.

Negative air pressure can literally poison your indoor environment. Negative air pressure can cause poisonous radon gas infiltration by actually pulling it out of the earth from underneath your house. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. Negative air pressure can also poison your indoor air with carbon monoxide and other combustion byproducts by causing back-drafting. Back-drafting is a term used to describe reversed air flow down chimneys and vent pipes of fuel burning appliances like furnaces, water heaters and fireplaces. Combustion pollutants that would normally migrate naturally up and out of chimneys or vents are instead sucked back into the house. The carbon monoxide levels retained in the house are typically not high enough to set off an alarm, but they are nonetheless poison and may cause occasional headaches, fatigue and flu-like symptoms, as well as, long term health problems. Finally, back-drafting can waste fuel through inefficient combustion and cause premature corrosion of chimneys, vent pipes, and the interiors of furnaces and water heaters.

Evidences of back-drafting are seen often by home inspectors. These can include stains at the draft doors and hoods of furnaces and water heaters, as well as, soot stains above fireplace openings. These evidences are a clear indication of what the occupants of the home have been inhaling. Sometimes the evidences are quite visible but the lack of visual evidence does not preclude the need for precaution.

The solution is to provide a regulated amount of fresh air into your home with the use of a make-up air vent. After installation, these vents work automatically on an as need basis. Whenever the indoor pressure drops, the vent allows fresh, oxygenated air to re-enter the house. When possible, the temperature of this incoming air is also tempered through a long run of ducting, or within the air return duct preceding the furnace and/or air conditioner.

The inlet is located outside the house like a clothes dryer vent, only designed to allow air in. While many heating contractors install these vents with barometric or spring loaded dampers, I do not recommend them because they only open when the blower is running. A make-up air vent should not be restricted by a damper so it will work whether or not the blower is running.

With so many ways air can be exhausted from a home, the best way to know for sure that you will not be affected by negative indoor air pressure is to have a make-up-air vent installed. Make-up-air maintains balanced air pressure and will improve the overall air quality indoors.

If you already have a make-up air vent, be sure to keep the exterior air inlet clean. If you do not have one, call a heating and cooling contractor to have one installed.

Tool Webmaster Desember 2007

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Tips-tips menulis SKRIPSI

Tidak dipungkiri lagi, menulis (tulisan ilmiah) bagi mahasiswa S1 merupakan suatu pekerjaan yang tidak mudah, minimal menyita waktu, khususnya bila tulisan ilmiah tersebut dievaluasi dan dipresentasikan.

Bentuk tulisan ilmiah yang secara formal dievaluasi dan dipresentasikan dalam penilaiannya di Jurusan Teknik Sipil UPH adalah membuat LAPORAN KERJA PRAKTEK (setelah minimal terkumpul 100 sks) dan SKRIPSI / LAPORAN TUGAS AKHIR MAGANG atau yang sejenisnya, yang menjadi syarat memperoleh gelar sarjana di level S1.

Laporan kerja praktek relatif tidak menjadi masalah karena tujuan utama adalah untuk melihat pengalaman mahasiswa peserta dalam mendapatkan wawasan bidang nyata di dunia konstruksi di luar kelas. Enaknya lagi yaitu di Jurusan kami bahwa pembuatan laporan kerja praktek tersebut dapat dikerjakan kelompok (maksimum dua orang). Kebetulan saya ditugaskan sebagai pembimbing kerja praktek.

**tentang mengerjakan berkelompok**

Dengan mengerjakan secara berkelompok tersebut, tentunya tidak bisa diketahui apakah tulisan tersebut dikerjakan bersama-sama atau hanya seorang saja yang aktif , sedang yang lainnya pasif. Tetapi karena penilaiannya adalah didasarkan pada presentasi dan tanya jawab secara oral (langsung), dimana laporan tertulis itu dijadikan dasar pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang diberikan, maka dapat diketahui: mana dari mahasiswa tersebut yang aktif atau pasif atau bahkan tidak melakukan kerja praktek sama sekali (berbohong). Prakteknya di UPH, sudah ada mahasiswa yang digagalkan karena dari presentasi oral dapat diketahui bahwa ternyata mahasiswa tersebut tidak melaksanakan kerja praktek yang sebenarnya (sudah ada dua orang), lalu yang mengulang karena meskipun sudah melakukan kerja praktek, tetapi ternyata tidak memahami apa-apa yang ada di tempat kerja prakteknya (ada dua orang juga).

SKRIPSI (dan tugas akhir lainnya ) relatif lebih susah karena harus dikerjakan mandiri, tentunya dibantu oleh pembimbing skripsi yang bebas dipilih oleh mahasiswa (bila disetujui).

Dalam praktek, pembuatan skripsi adalah momok karena menyita waktu dan perhatian dari mahasiswa dalam membuatnya, selain itu juga kadang-kadang dijumpai bahwa meskipun dikerjakan cukup lama (berbulan-bulan) tapi hasilnya tidak begitu menggembirakan. Kadang perlu 1 semester atau 2 semester atau bahkan lebih, dan jika lebih terpaksa ganti judul dan ganti pembimbing. Jelas dengan pertambahan waktu tersebut biaya yang dikeluarkan mahasiswa menjadi berlipat-lipat. Kasihan orang-tuanya. :(

Karena dianggap sebagai penghambat kelulusan maka ada beberapa universitas (program studi) mencoba menghilangkannya dan mengganti dengan tugas-tugas di kelas. Jika anda menemukan kondisi seperti itu, coba amati : pasti jumlah muridnya banyak, mereka (yg membuat kebijaksanaan skripsi dihapus) sebenarnya kesulitan cari dosen pembimbing. Skripsi jadi lama, atau mutunya jadi dipertanyakan. Takut dianggap lulusannya sedikit maka skripsi dihapus. Jadi orientasi penyelenggaranya hanya berpikir jumlah kelulusan meningkat, tapi mutu dipertanyakan.

kemampuan seseorang dalam menuangkan gagasan secara tertulis merupakan representasi dari kualitas intelektualnya, karena melalui tulisan atau karya tulis (dalam bentuk apapun) seseorang mewujudkan pikirannya. … Dari tulisan memang akan kelihatan logika berpikir seorang. Apakah subjek, predikat dan objeknya jelas, atau kalimatnya kacau. Dengan menulis, seseorang belajar berpikir secara eksak dan padat. (Dedi Supriadi 1997)

Kesulitan membuat skripsi juga dirasakan penulis sewaktu menjadi mahasiswa. Jika mau mengingat kembali, maka lamanya waktu studi dulu adalah akibat penulisan tugas akhir, baik sewaktu jadi mahasiswa S1 di UGM maupun mahasiswa S2 di UI. Bahkan pada saat-saat awal jadi dosenpun kadang masih susah untuk mengevaluasi tulisan skripsi mahasiswa. Khususnya untuk menentukan apakah tulisannya baik atau buruk. Paling-paling dilihat tampilannya, formatnya atau bila ketemu kesalahan dalam ejaan atau kalimat.

Tetapi dengan berjalannya waktu, setelah cukup banyak mencoba untuk meneliti, menulis dan menerbitkan buku, akhirnya dapat diambil suatu kesimpulan bahwa sebenarnya menulis (baik skripsi atau lainnya) adalah relatif mudah jika sudah tahu tip-tip yang penting.

Langkah-langkah atau tip penting yang dimaksud adalah :

  1. Mampu melihat dan memilih masalah yang akan ditulis. Ini merupakan hal yang paling penting dari suatu SKRIPSI dan membedakan dengan menulis pada umumnya. Bagaimanapun skripsi adalah suatu bentuk karya tulis ilmiah yang mana mahasiswa diharapkan dapat berpikir ilmiah dengan membuat suatu penelitian sebagai objeknya. Untuk itu yang perlu diperhatikan adalah hal-hal yang akan sampaikan berikut.
  2. “APA” masalahnya tersebut, darimana anda mengetahui bahwa itu menjadi suatu masalah. Jika informasi tersebut diperoleh dari suatu studi pustaka berdasarkan jurnal-jurnal canggih up-to-dated maka tentunya lebih mudah meyakinkan orang lain bahwa masalah tersebut cukup baik untuk dibahas. Tetapi jika hasil pemahaman subyektif atau hasil pengamatan empiris pribadi belaka maka tentunya perlu data-data pendukung yang dibuat yang lebih banyak sehingga orang dapat yakin bahwa itu memang masalah yang patut dibahas (kerja lebih banyak).
  3. “MENGAPA” anda memilih masalah tersebut, karena dosen pembimbingnya yang memilihkannya, atau karena anda menyukai bidang dimana masalah tersebut berada, tentu akan membedakan strategi anda mengerjakan tugas SKRIPSI tersebut. Sebaiknya usahakan anda memilih karena anda memang menyenangi bidang dimana masalah tersebut ada. Untuk itu, apakah anda menguasai persoalan atau tidak itu tidak menjadi masalah. Jika anda menguasai persoalan , misalnya tentang pemrograman, maka tentu akan mempermudah anda menyelesaikan tugas itu. Tapi jika tidak, maka itu merupakan kesempatan berharga anda untuk mendapat knowledge yang lain (mendapat ilmu baru), meskipun itu perlu ekstra tenaga.

    Ngelmu iku kelakone kanthi laku.
    ( indonesianya : menguasai ilmu itu perlu usaha keras, ingat cerita silat jawa: perlu bertapa dihutan-hutan atau di tempuran sungai agar digdaya ).

    Jika anda tidak tahu apa-apa (netral terhadap masalah tersebut) maka usahakan bahwa masalah tersebut dipahami oleh dosen pembimbing. Jika masalah itu yang memberi adalah dosen, maka diharapkan dosen tersebut juga tahu bagaimana dengan masalah tersebut. Jika benar-benar nggak tahu tentang masalah yang akan dipilih, maka pilihlah dosen pembimbing yang anda tahu kemampuannya, yang anda anggap dapat membimbing anda (anda punya respek terhadap dia).

  4. “BAGAIMANA” masalah tersebut akan dapat diselesaikan, ini tentu memperkirakan ilmu-ilmu apa yang diperlukan untuk memecahkan massalah tersebut. Bisa melihat publikasi sebelumnya. Apakah untuk itu perlu uji eksperimental, penyelesaian parametris atau pemrograman atau yang lain. Kira-kira anda mempunyai keyakinan mampu atau tidak dengan itu. Itu konsekuensinya biaya dan waktu lho.
  5. “BILAMANA” masalah tersebut terpecahkan , apa yang kira-kira anda dapatkan. Bila anda tahu apa yang dapat anda berikan jika masalah tersebut terselesaikan maka ini mendukung kepercayaan diri bahwa solusi dari SKRIPSI ini akan berharga. Bahkan kalau PD maka dapat diinformasikan ke teman-teman lain, misal ke seminar dsb. Menambah kepercayaan diri, juga nilai tambah jika membuat lamaran kerja.
  6. Mampu memformulasikan MASALAH yang dipilih. Jika telah mempunyai alasan yang kuat tentang suatu masalah maka untuk realitas kerjanya maka usahakan masalah tersebut diformulasikan dalam bentuk tulisan pendek. Dalam hal ini dalam bentuk ABSTRAK. Kaget ya ? . Khan biasanya bikin abstract jika tulisan sudah selesai, itu jika abstract diterjemahkan sebagai rangkuman. Lha inilah bedanya, pengalaman dulu yang mengatakan bahwa abstrak dibuat setelah selesai dikerjakan, itu SALAH. Jika kondisinya demikian maka pengerjaan skripsi anda belum berbentuk, bisa liar, bisa kesana-kemari, tidak jelas, bisa lama. Kenapa ? Karena spesifikasinya belum ada (belum jelas/samar). Dengan membuat ABSTRACT terlebih dahulu maka anda sudah berusaha memfokuskan pikiran ke masalah tersebut yaitu dengan menuliskannya. Apa abstract tersebut kaku, ya enggak. Rubah-sedikit-sedikit ya nggak apa, tetapi dengan membuat abstract, kita tahu : o000 ada perubahan, mengapa, tentunya agar lebih baik lagi. TERKENDALI.
  7. Dalam membuat abstrak tersebut, perlu untuk membagi menjadi tiga tahapan utama, yaitu tahapan INTRO: yaitu mengenalkan masalah, apa, mengapa, dan batasan-batasannya (nanti jadi BAB 1 dan BAB2); tahapan PROGRES: yaitu tentang bagaimana masalah tersebut dicoba dipecahkan, termasuk juga pembahasannya (nanti jadi BAB 3 dan BAB4); dan tahapan KESIMPULAN tentang bilamana masalah dapat terpecahkan (nanti jadi BAB5).
  8. Evaluasi ABSTRACT bersama dosen pembimbing. Apakah abstract sudah menggigit. Bila perlu bisa juga dimasukkan ke seminar atau minta pendapat orang lain yang kritis. Tangkap masukan yang diberikan, evaluasi atau diskusikan dengan dosen. Jika mantap maka dapat dilanjutkan. Ingat, mutu tidaknya suatu hasil penelitian (skripsi) dapat dengan mudah dibaca dari abstract-nya. Jika abstract-nya nggak ada isi-nya maka kecil kemungkinan materi skripsi yang utama juga dibaca, paling-paling disimpan digudang. Tidak membanggakan untuk ditunjukkan orang lain. Tetapi abstract yang hebat kadang-kadang bisa mengecoh. ;)
  9. Jika abstract sudah OK. Bisa dilanjutkan.
  10. Jika anda sudah tahu apa masalah anda, mengapa anda memilih masalah tersebut, batasan-batasan masalah yang dipilih dan strategi penyelesaian yang akan dikerjakan maka tentunya hal itu dapat dituangkan dalam BAB 1. Penulisan BAB1 sangat penting karena menentukan luasan atau cakupan yang didiskusikan dalam bab-bab selanjutnya. Bab1 merupakan pengikat, pedoman kerja untuk bab-bab berikutnya. Jangan biasakan meniru BAB1 orang lain, belum tentu cocok. Jadi intinya Bab1 adalah pedoman kerja untuk penulisan bab-bab selanjutnya.
  11. Untuk dapat mengerjakan skripsi sesuai dengan BAGAIMANA menyelesaikan masalah tersebut, tentu anda harus tahu lebih dahulu bagaimana strategi orang lain menangani atau bertindak terhadap masalah tersebut. Ini dapat diketahui dengan melakukan studi pustaka (BAB2), mereview publikasi orang lain dari jurnal-jurnal atau yang lainnya. Usahakan pakailah acuan jurnal-jurnal terkini (menurut salah satu profesor saya, gunakan jurnal dalam lima tahun terakhir). Tetapi bisa juga anda mengutip suatu karya yang pernah diterbitkan ratusan tahun yang lalu jika karya tersebut memang karya monumental di bidangnya. Sekali lagi, usahakan yang dijadikan referensi adalah jurnal ilmiah, bila terpaksa, baru textbooks.

    Referensi dalam suatu penelitian and publikasi juga dapat menjadi indikasi kehebatan dari materi yang diteliti dan ditulis tersebut.

    Jangan gunakan diktat kuliah sebagai referensi, karena kalau hanya diktat kuliah kayaknya kurang berbobot (kecuali yang telah dipublikasikan ke luar), jika hanya sekedar diktat copy-an sebaiknya hindari saja. Kecuali jika diktat itu diberikan oleh dosen yang terkenal pakar pada bidang yang dimaksud dan merupakan problem yang belum pernah dipublikasikan sebelumnya. **tetapi hati-hati, karena umumnya : dosen-dosen umumnya menyakinkan didepan kelasnya, tetapi kalau ketemu teman-teman sejawat-nya mejen **tak berkutik/pasif** Pengalaman menunjukkan bahwa diktat-diktat seperti itu di Indonesia hanya dibuat dari copy-and-paste aja. **kadang nggak bermutu**. Sorry nggak semua, tetapi kalau bisa cari rujukan yang dipublikasikan resmi.

  12. Dengan memahami publikasi-publikasi yang ada tentang masalah yang dibahas tentunya dapat diambil suatu kesimpulan atau dugaan, apa-apa saja yang telah dilakukan orang.

    Selanjutnya kembali ke persyaratan pembuatan skripsi (level S1) tentunya bobotnya berbeda dengan tesis (level S2) atau disertasi (level S3). Pada level S1 tidak diperlukan suatu tingkat penelitian yang orisinil seperti halnya disertasi atau kedalaman seperti level S2. Menurut pemahaman penulis : pada level S1 , mahasiswa cukup diminta belajar memahami permasalahan, mengerti alasan mengapa permasalahan tersebut perlu dibahas, mengetahui tindakan orang lain tentang masalah tersebut termasuk tahu sisi baik dan buruknya masing-masing dan dapat menerapkannya pada kasus lokal (studi kasus) serta menarik kesimpulan dari tindakan yang dikerjakannya.

    Jika laporannya (skripsinya) dapat dibaca dan memperlihatkan alur logika-logika seperti di atas maka mahasiswa tersebut mestinya sudah pantas lulus level S1. Proses tersebut mencakup bab 3 - sampai bab akhir.

Pada dasarnya penulisan skripsi yang paling sulit adalah pada cara memulainya, jika sudah sampai langkah ke-10 diatas maka penulisan dapat berkembang sangat cepat, dan bab-babnya bisa berkembang. Hanya ingat bahwa bab dibatasi pada suatu tahapan yang bisa mandiri, dan ingat bahwa setiap bab satu dengan yang lainnya harus ada benang merah yang menghubungkannya (terkait).

Urutan-urutan bab, yaitu pada awal adalah intro, berkembang pada progress dan diakhiri dengan kesimpulan. Kesimpulan penting sekali, itu menunjukkan apakah penulis (mahasiswa) memahami apa yang dikerjakannya atau tidak, tergantung dari kesimpulan yang diberikan. Kesimpulan harus suatu yang spesifik tentang masalah tersebut. Apa yang terjadi , juga dengan kesimpulan dapat diketahui bahwa tulisan tersebut berguna atau tidak, bisa dilihat dari kesimpulan yang diberikan.

Ingat dalam pembuatan skripsi, ketebalan tulisan tidak bisa menjadi ukuran apakah itu berbobot atau tidak. Suatu skripsi yang tipispun jika memenuhi konsep-konsep di atas bahkan kalau dikemas dengan baik itu dapat menarik untuk dipresentasikan diforum ilmiah yang lebih luas, dan dapat dibanggakan.

O ya, hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penulisan menurut saya adalah :

  • Tampilan adalah nomer satu, isi baru ke dua. Jangan dibalik dan dibandingkan dengan manusia. Pengalaman menunjukkan bahwa bila tampilan (format) suatu tulisan tidak diperhatikan (jelek) maka isinya kemungkinan besar juga tidak akan dibaca. Dalam hal seperti itu, dosen penguji akan melihat-lihat lebih banyak tulisan anda, dan ada kemungkinan menemukan suatu kesalahan dari tulisan anda. :(
  • Pastikan format yang digunakan sesuai dengan petunjuk dari Institusi (ini penting), berapa margin kiri-atas dsb, ukuran font, jumlah spasis pada baris, dsb-nya. Format yang baik kadang-kadang dapat mengecoh dosen penguji yang malas, sehingga ada kemungkinan tidak akan ketemu kesalahan yang ada (bila ada). Sehingga waktu di uji **selamat**. ;)
  • Tentang ISI. Kualitas kadang-kadang bersifat relatif. Tergantung dosen dsb. Tetapi yang jelas dan langsung bisa dinilai adalah KONSISTENSI. Suatu tulisan harus konsisten, antara satu bagian dan bagian yang lain dalam skripsi tersebut. Jika tidak konsisten, maka itu dapat dijadikan modal untuk menguji materi skripsi tersebut. Pendapat anda saling di adu sendiri.
  • Tulislah APA-APA YANG DIKUASAI saja. Jika ada hal-hal yang tidak diketahui (meski sudah usaha kesana-kemari) maka usahakan bagian tersebut dihilangkan (itu jika tidak mempengaruhi bagian-bagian lain). Jika tidak bisa maka usahakan hal tersebut di luar cakupan masalah yang diteliti. Ini penting. Ingat sebagai penulis maka seharusnya penulis menguasai tulisan yang dibuatnya. O ya, penting juga untuk mencari alasan yang bagus mengapa anda tidak perlu membahas hal tersebut (persiapan bila ada dosen yang kritis yang tahu tentang itu, tapi ini jarang terjadi, ya siapa tahu.)
  • Semua tabel harus ada judul tabel dan nomer tabel, semua gambar harus ada judul gambar dan nomer gambar. Konsisten baik font dan nomernya dikeseluruhan laporan. O ya, gambar yang ditampilkan pada bagian dalam tulisan hanya yang mendukung ulasan / tulisan pada bagian itu. Jika sifatnya umum dan ukurannya besar maka sebaiknya di tampilan pada lampiran.
  • Daftar Pustaka harus ada, ciri-ciri tulisan ilmiah adalah adanya acuan pustaka, dan penting yang harus diperhatikan bahwa yang dicantumkan pada Daftar Pustaka adalah yang diacu saja. Jangan sekedar nampang. Bagi orang awam memang kelihatannya keren, tulisannya didukung jurnal-jurnal ilmiah hebat, tapi bagi yang ngerti : apa-apaan ini, koq semuanya dicantumin, pasti penulisnya nggak baca dan tulisannya biasanya nggak berbobot (nggak tahu apa yang dituliskan, jadi biar tebal sembarangan nulis aja). Dosen penguji (yg tahu) cenderung ingin membuat pertanyaan menguji, “apa bener mahasiswa ini membaca pustak yang tercantum tersebut”. Hati-hati.
  • Yang terakhir, jangan segan-segan untuk membaca ulang, prinsipnya semakin banyak anda membaca ulang maka semakin kecil kemungkinan kesalahan akan timbul.

    Apabila mungkin, biarkan draf anda agak sehari atau dua hari sebelum merevisinya. Hal ini akan memberi jarak mental anda dengan karya sehingga kemudian anda kembali dengan prespektif baru yang berbeda dan lebih segar. Saat itu anda bukan lagi pribadi yang sama dengan ketika anda menulis draf pertama. (Atmazaki 2006)

    Selain itu dengan semakin banyak membaca ulang skripsi anda maka anda semakin memahami masalah tersebut (sebagai modal nanti waktu presentasi oral).

  • Ketidak-mauan membaca ulang makalah anda menunjukkan bahwa anda belum mantap dengan karya tulis yang anda buat, ada ’sesuatu’ dengan tulisan anda. Jika anda sendiri tidak mantap terhadap karya anda. Bagaimana orang lain bisa mantap. Itu prinsip menulis yang baik.

Untuk mendukung terciptanya skripsi yang baik dan akhirnya dapat mengantar mahasiswa mencapai kelulusan dengan mantap, maka banyak membaca merupakan kunci utamanya. Oleh karena itu, ada baiknya pada bagian ini diberikan link-link di internet yang mendukung gagasan di atas, sbb :

Research Methods Knowledge Base
by Prof. William M.K. Trochim
Department of Policy Analysis and Management
Cornell University.

Rank 10 desember 2007 hal 10

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Rank 10 desember 2007 hal 9

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Rank 10 desember 2007 hal 8

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